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Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V WY

A

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  • Abdominal aortic aneurysm
    A localised dilatation (ballooning) of the abdominal aorta exceeding the normal diameter by more than 50 percent. Abdominal aortic aneurysms occur most commonly in individuals between 65 and 75 years old and are more common among men and smokers.
  • Acute care
    A pattern of health care in which a patient is treated for a brief but severe episode of illness, for the sequel of an accident or other trauma, or during recovery from surgery. Acute care is usually given in a hospital by specialised personnel using complex and sophisticated technical equipment and materials, and it may involve intensive or emergency care.
  • Aesthetic surgery
    Plastic or cosmetic surgery. (see Cosmetic surgery, Plastic surgery)
  • AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)
    An infectious disease of the immune system caused by a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • Alternative treatment
    See Unconventional treatment.
  • Allergology
    The study of allergy and hypersensitivity.
  • Ambulatory care
    Medical care, including diagnosis, observation, treatment and rehabilitation, which is provided on an outpatient basis. Ambulatory care is given to persons who are able to ambulate or walk about.
  • Anaesthesia
    A drug, administered for medical or surgical purposes that induces partial or total loss of sensation and may be topical, local, regional, or general, depending on the method of administration and area of the body affected.
  • Andrology
    A branch of medicine concerned with men’s health, particularly male infertility and sexual dysfunction.
  • Apartheid
    An official policy of racial segregation formerly practiced in the Republic of South Africa, involving political, legal, and economic discrimination against nonwhites.
  • ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations)
    A geo-political and economic organisation of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on 8 August 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Since then, membership has expanded to include Brunei, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam.
  • Assisted reproduction
    Methods used to achieve pregnancy by artificial or partially artificial means.
  • Ayurveda
    A system of traditional medicine native to the Indian Subcontinent and practiced in other parts of the world as a form of alternative medicine. Its methods include the use of herbs, massage, and Yoga.

B

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  • Baby boomers
    The generation that was born during the demographic Post-World War II baby boom between 1946 and 1964. This cohort is associated with a redefinition of traditional values and shares characteristics, such as higher rates of participation in higher education than previous generation and higher income.
  • Bariatric surgery
    A type of procedure performed on people who are dangerously obese, for the purpose of losing weight. (Also known as weight loss surgery)
  • Basic research (fundamental research)
    A research carried out to increase understanding of fundamental principles. Many times the end results have no direct or immediate commercial benefits: basic research can be thought of as arising out of curiosity. However, in the long term it is the basis for applied research.
  • Botox treatments (Botulinum Toxin)
    A non-surgical cosmetic treatment for moderate to severe frown lines.
  • Brain drain
    The emigration of scientists, technologists, etc., seeking better pay, equipment, or conditions.
  • Breast augmentation
    A surgery performed in order to alter the size and shape of a woman’s breasts.

C

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  • Cardiac bypass
    A surgical procedure performed to improve blood supply to the heart by creating new routes for blood flow when one or more of the coronary arteries become obstructed.
  • CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rate)
    The year-over-year growth rate of an investment over a specified period of time.
  • Caste
    A combined social system of occupation, endogamy, culture, social class, and political power. Caste should not be confused with class as members of a caste are deemed to be alike in function or culture, whereas not all members of a defined class may be so alike.
  • Cardiology
    The medical study of the structure, function, and disorders of the heart.
  • Cardiovascular diseases
    The class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins).
  • Clinic
    1. A facility, often associated with a hospital or medical school, that is devoted to the diagnosis and care of outpatients.
    2. A medical establishment run by several specialists working in cooperation and sharing the same facilities.
  • Chemotherapy
    Treatment of cancer with anticancer drugs.
  • Cochlear implant
    A surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard of hearing.
  • Colorectal cancer
    A type of cancer, also called colon cancer or large bowel cancer, which includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix.
  • Consumer behaviour
    The study of when, why, how and where certain people do or do not buy products. It blends elements from psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. It attempts to understand the buyer decision making process, both individually and in groups.
  • Cosmetic surgery
    Surgical techniques that are specifically concerned with maintaining normal appearance, restoring it, or enhancing it toward some aesthetic ideal.
  • Cryotherapy
    The local or general use of low temperatures in medical therapy or the removal of heat from a body part.

D

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  • Dental implant
    A surgically fixed substitute for roots of missing teeth. Embedded in the jawbone, dental implants act as anchors for a replacement tooth, also known as a crown, or a full set of replacement teeth.
  • Dentistry
    The science concerned with the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases of the teeth, gums, and related structures of the mouth and including the repair or replacement of defective teeth.
  • Dermatology
    The branch of medicine dealing with the skin and associated diseases, a unique specialty with both medical and surgical aspects.
  • Descriptive research
    Descriptive research is research that describes the phenomenon as they exist. It is used to identify and obtain the information on the characteristics of a particular problem or issue. The data is often quantitative and statistical techniques are often used.
  • Desk research
    Gathering data that already exists either from internal sources of the client, publications of governmental and non-governmental institutions, free access data on the internet, in professional newspapers and magazines, in annual reports of companies and commercial databases to name a few.
  • Developed country
    The term used to describe countries that have a high level of development according to certain criteria, such as economic prosperity.
  • Developing country
    A nation with a low level of material well-being. There is no single internationally recognised definition of developed country, and the levels of development may vary widely within so-called developing countries, with some developing countries having high average standards of living.
  • Diabetes
    A condition in which the body either does not produce enough, or does not properly respond to, insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas. This causes glucose to accumulate in the blood, often leading to various complications.
  • Diagnostics
    The act or process of identifying or determining the nature and cause of a disease or injury through evaluation of patient history, examination, and review of laboratory data.

E

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  • EEA (European Economic Area)
    Established on 1 January 1994 following an agreement between member states of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), the European Community (EC), and all member states of the European Union (EU). It allows these EFTA countries to participate in the European single market without joining the EU. EEA members include Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway and 27 EU countries.
  • Elective surgery
    A planned, non-emergency surgical procedure, usually optional (e.g. breast augmentation).
  • Endocrinology
    A branch of medicine dealing with disorder of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones.
  • Endoscopy
    Looking inside the body for medical reasons using an instrument called an endoscope.
  • Epilepsy
    A common chronic neurological disorder characterised by recurrent unprovoked seizures.
  • EU (European Union)
    An economic and political union established in 1993 by members of the European Community. The establishment of the European Union expanded the political scope of the European Economic Community, especially in the area of foreign and security policy, and provided for the creation of a central European bank and the adoption of a common currency, the Euro. EU Member States include: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom
  • Euthanasia
    The act or practice of ending the life of an individual suffering from a terminal illness or an incurable condition, as by lethal injection or the suspension of extraordinary medical treatment.
  • Experimental treatment
    An unproven therapy that is usually not generally accepted, not recognised, rarely used or unknown.
  • Exploratory research
    Exploratory research is trial and error research that is started with vague assumptions on reality with unclear formulated hypothesis or expectations and without any working methods that are set beforehand. The aim is to look for patterns, ideas and hypothesis rather than testing a hypothesis.

F

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  • Face lift
    A cosmetic procedure that involves removing sagging skin and tightening muscle tissue of the face and neck to counter signs of aging.
  • Field research
    Research that is conducted externally in a market, not using existing published sources. The data is collected mainly through surveys and questionnaires that are designed specifically for a purpose.
  • For-profit organisation
    A business or other organisation whose primary goal is making money (profit).

G

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  • Gastric Bypass
    A surgery used to treat morbid obesity, the severe accumulation of excess weight as fatty tissue, and the health problems it causes.
  • Gastroenterology
    A branch of medicine whereby the digestive system and associated disorders are studied.
  • GCC region (Gulf Cooperation Council)
    A political and economic union involving the six Arab states of the Persian Gulf (United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait) with many economic and social objectives.
  • GDP (Gross Domestic Product)
    The total market value of all final goods and services produced in a country in a given year.
  • Gender reassignment surgery (Sex reassignment surgery)
    Surgical procedures by which a person’s physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are altered to resemble that of the other sex.
  • General Surgery
    Surgeries that deal with surgical problems of all kinds, rather than those in a restricted area.
  • Genetics
    The scientific study of heredity.
  • GPI (Global Peace Index)
    An index attempting to measure the relative position of nations’ and regions’ peacefulness. It is maintained by the Institute for Economics and Peace and developed in consultation with an international panel of peace experts from peace institutes and think tanks with data collected and analysed by the Economist Intelligence Unit.
  • Gynaecology
    Medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive system.

H

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  • Haematology
    The branch of medicine that is concerned with the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases.
  • Halal
    An Arabic term designating any object or an action that is permissible to use or engage in, according to Islamic law. It is the opposite of haraam. The term is widely used to designate food seen as permissible according to Islamic law.
  • Health centre
    An institution or group of institutions providing all types of medical care and preventive services to a population.
  • Health tourism
    Travel or vacationing for health or fitness purposes.
  • Hemotherapy
    The treatment of disease by the use of blood or blood derivatives.
  • Hip replacement
    A surgical procedure in which the hip joint is replaced by a prosthetic implant.
  • Hip resurfacing
    A surgery which has been developed as a less radical alternative to total hip replacement. It replaces the surface of the joint but removes far less bone than the traditional hip replacement.
  • HIV(Human immunodeficiency virus)
    A virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections.
  • Holistic treatment
    Therapies based on the belief that the whole person must be treated.
  • Homeopathy
    A system of therapy based on the concept that disease can be treated with drugs (in minute doses) thought capable of producing the same symptoms in healthy people as the disease itself.
  • Hospital
    A medical facility capable of providing inpatient care. It is appropriately staffed and equipped to provide diagnostic and therapeutic services, as well as the necessary supporting services required to perform its assigned functions. A hospital may, in addition, discharge the functions of a clinic.
  • HPI (Happy Planet Index)
    An index of human well-being and environmental impact that was introduced by the New Economics Foundation (NEF) in July 2006. The index is designed to challenge well-established indicators of countries’ development, such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the Human Development Index (HDI), which are seen as not taking sustainability into account.
  • Hysteroscopy
    The inspection of the uterine cavity by endoscopy.

I

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  • Inpatient care
    The care of patients whose condition requires hospitalisation.
  • Internal medicine
    The medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis, management and non-surgical treatment of unusual or serious diseases.
  • IVF (In Vitro Fertilisation)
    A process by which egg cells are fertilised by sperm outside the womb, in vitro. IVF is a major treatment in infertility.

J

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  • Jurisdiction
    1. The right and power to interpret and apply the law.
    2. The territorial range of authority or control.

K

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  • Knee replacement
    A surgical procedure to replace the weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint to relieve the pain and disability of knee diseases.
  • Kosher food
    Foods that conform to the rules of Jewish religion. Reasons for food being non-kosher include the presence of ingredients derived from non-kosher animals or from kosher animals that were not properly slaughtered, a mixture of meat and milk, wine or grape juice (or their derivatives) produced without supervision, the use of produce from Israel that has not been tithed, or even the use of cooking utensils and machinery which had previously been used for non-kosher food.

L

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  • Laparoscopic surgery
    A modern surgical technique in which operations in the abdomen are performed through small incisions (usually 0.5-1.5cm) as compared to larger incisions needed in traditional surgical procedures.
  • LASIK eye surgery
    An eye surgery performed using a laser. It requires less time for the patient’s recovery, and the patient feels less pain overall.
  • Liposuction
    A cosmetic surgery operation that removes fat from various sites on the human body, such as abdomen, thighs, the neck, backs of the arms.

M

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  • MBA (Master of Business Administration)
    A second university degree in business management.
  • Medical facilitator
    A company organizes medical tourism for patients and providers. They often provide assistance with logistics and travel arrangements.
  • Metabolic surgery
    A surgical operation aimed to control metabolic diseases, i.e. diseases relating to the whole range of biochemical processes that occur within any living organism.

N

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  • Necessary surgery
    A surgery that must be performed in order to maintain life and gross quality of life.
  • Neonatology
    A subspecialty of paediatrics that consists of the medical care of newborn infants, especially the ill or premature newborn infant.
  • Nephrology
    A branch of internal medicine and paediatrics dealing with the study of the function and diseases of the kidney.
  • Neurology
    A medical specialty dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
  • Non-profit organisation, not-for-profit organisation
    An organisation which exists for educational or charitable reasons, and from which its shareholders or trustees do not benefit financially.

O

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  • Obstetrics
    A surgical specialty dealing with the care of women and their children during pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal.
  • Oncology
    The study of diseases that cause cancer.
  • Ophthalmology
    The branch of medicine dealing with the eye, including its anatomy, physiology, and pathology.
  • Orthodontics
    A specialty of dentistry that is concerned with the study and treatment of malocclusions (improper bites), which may be a result of tooth irregularity, disproportionate jaw improved bite.
  • Orthopaedics
    The branch of surgery broadly concerned with the skeletal system (bones).
  • Otolaryngology
    The branch of medicine that specialises in the diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, throat, and head and neck disorders. Also known as ENT (Ear, Nose, Throat)
  • Outpatient
    A patient who is admitted to a hospital or clinic for treatment that does not require an overnight stay.

P

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  • Paediatrics
    The branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.
  • Physical therapy
    A health care profession that provides services to individuals in order to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout life.
  • Plastic surgery
    A medical practice that deals with the repair, reconstruction or replacement of physical defects.
  • Polyclinic
    A clinic in which diseases of many sorts are treated.
  • Population
    This is the complete set of elements about which statements can be made.
  • Post-consumption phase of consumer behaviour
    Consumer’s actions taking place after the actual purchase/consumption of a product/service, which reflect the consumer’s dissatisfaction or satisfaction.
  • Primary care
    The medical care a patient receives upon first contact with the health care system, before referral elsewhere within the system.
  • Pre-consumption phase of consumer behaviour
    Consumer’s actions taking place before the actual purchase/consumption of a product/service. Pre-consumption phase includes problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives and purchase decision.
  • Preventive treatment
    A procedure or program designed to prevent a disease from occurring.
  • PHC (Primary Health Centre)
    A basic structural and functional unit of the public health services in developing countries. PHCs were established to provide accessible, affordable and available primary health care to people.
  • Psychiatry
    A medical specialty officially devoted to the treatment and study of mental disorders.
  • Pulmonary disease
    Disease related to lungs.
  • Pulmonology
    The specialty that deals with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory tract.

Q

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  • Qualitative research
    Interpretive techniques that seek to describe, decode, translate, and otherwise come to terms with the meaning, not the frequency, of certain phenomena.
  • Quantitative research
    The precise count of some behaviour, knowledge, opinion or attitude.

R

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  • Radiology
    The branch or specialty of medicine that deals with the study and application of imaging technology like x-ray and radiation to diagnosing and treating disease.
  • Reconstructive surgery
    The use of surgery to restore the form and function of the body.
  • Rehabilitation
    A therapy aimed at improving neurocognitive function that has been lost or diminished by disease or traumatic injury.
  • Reliability
    This is the degree to which a measurement is independent of coincidence and consistent. It is a necessary but not sufficient condition for validity.
  • Research method
    The techniques and procedures used to obtain and analyse research data, including for example questionnaires, observation, interviews, and statistical and non-statistical techniques.
  • Rheumatology
    A sub-specialty in internal medicine and paediatrics, devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases, i.e. medical problems affecting the joints and connective tissue.
  • Rhinoplasty
    A surgical procedure that is usually performed in order to improve the function (plastic surgery) or the appearance (cosmetic surgery) of a human nose.
  • Robotic surgery
    The use of robots in performing surgery.

S

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  • SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation)
    An economic and political organisation of eight countries in Southern Asia: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan.
  • Sample
    A sub-group or part of a larger population that are carefully selected to represent the population.
  • Sanatorium
    A hospital for recuperation or for the treatment of chronic diseases.
  • Schengen Area
    A group of 25 European countries which have abolished all border controls between each other. Schengen countries include: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland.
  • Secondary care
    A treatment by specialists to whom a patient has been referred by primary care providers.
  • Siddha
    A form of medical treatment of diseases using substances of all possible origins in a way that balances the possible harmful effect of each substance. Preparations are made mainly out of the parts of the plants and trees such as leaves, bark, stem, root etc, but include also mineral and some animal substances. This form of medicine is well known in South India
  • Soul food
    An American cuisine, the traditional cuisine of African Americans in the United States.
  • Sports medicine
    A medical specialty dealing with preventing, diagnosing and treating injuries related to participating in sports and/or exercise.
  • Spa
    A resort providing therapeutic baths.
  • Stem cell therapy
    A technology in which a person’s own neuronal stem cells are triggered to revert to their primitive embryonic form and then re-differentiate into mature cells of various organs.
  • SWOT Analysis
    A strategic planning method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture.

T

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  • Telemedicine
    The use of medical information exchanged via electronic communications to improve patients’ health status. This includes consultations, rendering diagnosis, patient monitoring and long distance surgery.
  • Telesurgery
    The ability for a doctor to perform surgery on a patient even though they are not physically in the same location. Telesurgery combines elements of robotics, cutting edge communication technology and elements of management information systems.
  • Tertiary care
    A treatment given in a health care centre that includes highly trained specialists and often advanced technology.
  • Thorax surgery
    The field of medicine involved in the surgical treatment of diseases affecting organs inside the thorax (the chest).
  • Thyroid surgery
    A surgery of thyroid gland. A gland that makes and stores hormones that help regulate the heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and the rate at which food is converted into energy.
  • Traumatology
    The study of wounds and injuries caused by accidents or violence to a person, and the surgical therapy and repair of the damage.

U

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  • Unconventional treatment
    Any healing practice that does not fall within the realm of conventional medicine or that has not been shown consistently to be effective. Alternative medicine is often based on the belief that a particular health regimen has efficacious effects even while there exists various bodies of evidence to contradict such a belief under the rigorous standards of evidence-based medicine. Commonly cited examples include naturopathy, herbalism, traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, yoga, and homeopathy.
  • Underdeveloped country
    A nation which, comparative to others, lacks industrialization, infrastructure, developed agriculture, and developed natural resources, and suffers from a low per capita income as a result.
  • UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation)
    A specialised agency of the United Nations established with the purpose to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture.
  • Urology
    The surgical specialty that focuses on the urinary tracts of males and females, and on the reproductive system of males.

V

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  • Validity
    1. The extent to which data collection method or methods accurately measure what they are intended to measure.
    2. The extent to which research findings are really about what they profess to be about.
  • Vascular surgery
    The treatment of surgery on diagnosed patients with diseases of the arterial, venous, and lymphatic systems.
  • Veneer
    In dentistry a thin layer of restorative material placed over a tooth surface, either to improve the aesthetics of a tooth, or to protect a damaged tooth surface.
  • Vertical integration
    In microeconomics and management, the term used to describe companies which are united through a hierarchy with a common owner. Usually each member of the hierarchy produces a different product or (marketspecific) service, and the products are combined to satisfy a common need.

W

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  • WHO (World Health Organisation)
    A specialised agency of the United Nations that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health.

Y

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  • Yoga
    Traditional physical and mental disciplines originating in India. The word is associated with meditative practices in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.
  • Yunani
    A traditional healing system prevalent in the Middle East, India, Pakistan, and neighbouring countries, according to which the body comprises four basic elements—earth, air, water, and fire— and four humours—blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. An equilibrium in the humours indicates good health while a disturbance in this equilibrium results in disease.