Abdominal aortic aneurysm
A localised dilatation (ballooning) of the abdominal aorta exceeding the normal diameter by more than 50
percent. Abdominal aortic aneurysms occur most commonly in individuals between 65 and 75 years old and
are more common among men and smokers.
A pattern of health care in which a patient is treated for a brief but severe episode of illness, for the sequel of
an accident or other trauma, or during recovery from surgery. Acute care is usually given in a hospital by specialised
personnel using complex and sophisticated technical equipment and materials, and it may involve intensive
or emergency care.
Plastic or cosmetic surgery. (see Cosmetic surgery, Plastic surgery)
AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)
An infectious disease of the immune system caused by a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
See Unconventional treatment.
The study of allergy and hypersensitivity.
Medical care, including diagnosis, observation, treatment and rehabilitation, which is provided on an outpatient
basis. Ambulatory care is given to persons who are able to ambulate or walk about.
A drug, administered for medical or surgical purposes that induces partial or total loss of sensation and may
be topical, local, regional, or general, depending on the method of administration and area of the body affected.
A branch of medicine concerned with men’s health, particularly male infertility and sexual dysfunction.
An official policy of racial segregation formerly practiced in the Republic of South Africa, involving political, legal,
and economic discrimination against nonwhites.
ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations)
A geo-political and economic organisation of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on 8
August 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Since then, membership has expanded
to include Brunei, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam.
Methods used to achieve pregnancy by artificial or partially artificial means.
A system of traditional medicine native to the Indian Subcontinent and practiced in other parts of the world
as a form of alternative medicine. Its methods include the use of herbs, massage, and Yoga.
The generation that was born during the demographic Post-World War II baby boom between 1946 and 1964.
This cohort is associated with a redefinition of traditional values and shares characteristics, such as higher
rates of participation in higher education than previous generation and higher income.
A type of procedure performed on people who are dangerously obese, for the purpose of losing weight. (Also
known as weight loss surgery)
Basic research (fundamental research)
A research carried out to increase understanding of fundamental principles. Many times the end results have
no direct or immediate commercial benefits: basic research can be thought of as arising out of curiosity. However,
in the long term it is the basis for applied research.
Botox treatments (Botulinum Toxin)
A non-surgical cosmetic treatment for moderate to severe frown lines.
The emigration of scientists, technologists, etc., seeking better pay, equipment, or conditions.
A surgery performed in order to alter the size and shape of a woman’s breasts.
A surgical procedure performed to improve blood supply to the heart by creating new routes for blood flow
when one or more of the coronary arteries become obstructed.
CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rate)
The year-over-year growth rate of an investment over a specified period of time.
A combined social system of occupation, endogamy, culture, social class, and political power. Caste should not
be confused with class as members of a caste are deemed to be alike in function or culture, whereas not all
members of a defined class may be so alike.
The medical study of the structure, function, and disorders of the heart.
The class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins).
1. A facility, often associated with a hospital or medical school, that is devoted to the diagnosis and care of outpatients.
2. A medical establishment run by several specialists working in cooperation and sharing the same facilities.
Treatment of cancer with anticancer drugs.
A surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or
severely hard of hearing.
A type of cancer, also called colon cancer or large bowel cancer, which includes cancerous growths in the colon,
rectum and appendix.
The study of when, why, how and where certain people do or do not buy products. It blends elements from
psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. It attempts to understand the buyer decision making process,
both individually and in groups.
Surgical techniques that are specifically concerned with maintaining normal appearance, restoring it, or enhancing
it toward some aesthetic ideal.
The local or general use of low temperatures in medical therapy or the removal of heat from a body part.
A surgically fixed substitute for roots of missing teeth. Embedded in the jawbone, dental implants act as anchors
for a replacement tooth, also known as a crown, or a full set of replacement teeth.
The science concerned with the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases of the teeth, gums, and related
structures of the mouth and including the repair or replacement of defective teeth.
The branch of medicine dealing with the skin and associated diseases, a unique specialty with both medical
and surgical aspects.
Descriptive research is research that describes the phenomenon as they exist. It is used to identify and obtain
the information on the characteristics of a particular problem or issue. The data is often quantitative and statistical
techniques are often used.
Gathering data that already exists either from internal sources of the client, publications of governmental and
non-governmental institutions, free access data on the internet, in professional newspapers and magazines,
in annual reports of companies and commercial databases to name a few.
The term used to describe countries that have a high level of development according to certain criteria, such
as economic prosperity.
A nation with a low level of material well-being. There is no single internationally recognised definition of developed
country, and the levels of development may vary widely within so-called developing countries, with
some developing countries having high average standards of living.
A condition in which the body either does not produce enough, or does not properly respond to, insulin, a hormone
produced in the pancreas. This causes glucose to accumulate in the blood, often leading to various complications.
The act or process of identifying or determining the nature and cause of a disease or injury through evaluation
of patient history, examination, and review of laboratory data.
EEA (European Economic Area)
Established on 1 January 1994 following an agreement between member states of the European Free Trade
Association (EFTA), the European Community (EC), and all member states of the European Union (EU). It allows
these EFTA countries to participate in the European single market without joining the EU. EEA members
include Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway and 27 EU countries.
A planned, non-emergency surgical procedure, usually optional (e.g. breast augmentation).
A branch of medicine dealing with disorder of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones.
Looking inside the body for medical reasons using an instrument called an endoscope.
A common chronic neurological disorder characterised by recurrent unprovoked seizures.
EU (European Union)
An economic and political union established in 1993 by members of the European Community. The establishment
of the European Union expanded the political scope of the European Economic Community, especially
in the area of foreign and security policy, and provided for the creation of a central European bank and the
adoption of a common currency, the Euro. EU Member States include: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the
Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the
The act or practice of ending the life of an individual suffering from a terminal illness or an incurable condition,
as by lethal injection or the suspension of extraordinary medical treatment.
An unproven therapy that is usually not generally accepted, not recognised, rarely used or unknown.
Exploratory research is trial and error research that is started with vague assumptions on reality with unclear
formulated hypothesis or expectations and without any working methods that are set beforehand. The aim is
to look for patterns, ideas and hypothesis rather than testing a hypothesis.
A cosmetic procedure that involves removing sagging skin and tightening muscle tissue of the face and neck
to counter signs of aging.
Research that is conducted externally in a market, not using existing published sources. The data is collected
mainly through surveys and questionnaires that are designed specifically for a purpose.
A business or other organisation whose primary goal is making money (profit).
A surgery used to treat morbid obesity, the severe accumulation of excess weight as fatty tissue, and the health
problems it causes.
A branch of medicine whereby the digestive system and associated disorders are studied.
GCC region (Gulf Cooperation Council)
A political and economic union involving the six Arab states of the Persian Gulf (United Arab Emirates, Bahrain,
Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait) with many economic and social objectives.
GDP (Gross Domestic Product)
The total market value of all final goods and services produced in a country in a given year.
Gender reassignment surgery (Sex reassignment surgery)
Surgical procedures by which a person’s physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics
are altered to resemble that of the other sex.
Surgeries that deal with surgical problems of all kinds, rather than those in a restricted area.
The scientific study of heredity.
GPI (Global Peace Index)
An index attempting to measure the relative position of nations’ and regions’ peacefulness. It is maintained by
the Institute for Economics and Peace and developed in consultation with an international panel of peace experts
from peace institutes and think tanks with data collected and analysed by the Economist Intelligence Unit.
Medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive system.
The branch of medicine that is concerned with the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases.
An Arabic term designating any object or an action that is permissible to use or engage in, according to Islamic
law. It is the opposite of haraam. The term is widely used to designate food seen as permissible according
to Islamic law.
An institution or group of institutions providing all types of medical care and preventive services to a population.
Travel or vacationing for health or fitness purposes.
The treatment of disease by the use of blood or blood derivatives.
A surgical procedure in which the hip joint is replaced by a prosthetic implant.
A surgery which has been developed as a less radical alternative to total hip replacement. It replaces the surface
of the joint but removes far less bone than the traditional hip replacement.
HIV(Human immunodeficiency virus)
A virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which the immune
system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections.
Therapies based on the belief that the whole person must be treated.
A system of therapy based on the concept that disease can be treated with drugs (in minute doses) thought
capable of producing the same symptoms in healthy people as the disease itself.
A medical facility capable of providing inpatient care. It is appropriately staffed and equipped to provide diagnostic
and therapeutic services, as well as the necessary supporting services required to perform its assigned
functions. A hospital may, in addition, discharge the functions of a clinic.
HPI (Happy Planet Index)
An index of human well-being and environmental impact that was introduced by the New Economics Foundation
(NEF) in July 2006. The index is designed to challenge well-established indicators of countries’ development,
such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the Human Development Index (HDI), which are seen as
not taking sustainability into account.
The inspection of the uterine cavity by endoscopy.
The care of patients whose condition requires hospitalisation.
The medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis, management and non-surgical treatment of unusual or
IVF (In Vitro Fertilisation)
A process by which egg cells are fertilised by sperm outside the womb, in vitro. IVF is a major treatment in infertility.
1. The right and power to interpret and apply the law.
2. The territorial range of authority or control.
A surgical procedure to replace the weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint to relieve the pain and disability
of knee diseases.
Foods that conform to the rules of Jewish religion. Reasons for food being non-kosher include the presence
of ingredients derived from non-kosher animals or from kosher animals that were not properly slaughtered, a
mixture of meat and milk, wine or grape juice (or their derivatives) produced without supervision, the use of
produce from Israel that has not been tithed, or even the use of cooking utensils and machinery which had
previously been used for non-kosher food.
A modern surgical technique in which operations in the abdomen are performed through small incisions (usually
0.5-1.5cm) as compared to larger incisions needed in traditional surgical procedures.
LASIK eye surgery
An eye surgery performed using a laser. It requires less time for the patient’s recovery, and the patient feels
less pain overall.
A cosmetic surgery operation that removes fat from various sites on the human body, such as abdomen, thighs,
the neck, backs of the arms.
MBA (Master of Business Administration)
A second university degree in business management.
A company organizes medical tourism for patients and providers. They often provide assistance with logistics
and travel arrangements.
A surgical operation aimed to control metabolic diseases, i.e. diseases relating to the whole range of biochemical
processes that occur within any living organism.
A surgery that must be performed in order to maintain life and gross quality of life.
A subspecialty of paediatrics that consists of the medical care of newborn infants, especially the ill or premature
A branch of internal medicine and paediatrics dealing with the study of the function and diseases of the kidney.
A medical specialty dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Non-profit organisation, not-for-profit organisation
An organisation which exists for educational or charitable reasons, and from which its shareholders or trustees
do not benefit financially.
A surgical specialty dealing with the care of women and their children during pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal.
The study of diseases that cause cancer.
The branch of medicine dealing with the eye, including its anatomy, physiology, and pathology.
A specialty of dentistry that is concerned with the study and treatment of malocclusions (improper bites), which
may be a result of tooth irregularity, disproportionate jaw improved bite.
The branch of surgery broadly concerned with the skeletal system (bones).
The branch of medicine that specialises in the diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, throat, and head and neck
disorders. Also known as ENT (Ear, Nose, Throat)
A patient who is admitted to a hospital or clinic for treatment that does not require an overnight stay.
The branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.
A health care profession that provides services to individuals in order to develop, maintain and restore maximum
movement and functional ability throughout life.
A medical practice that deals with the repair, reconstruction or replacement of physical defects.
A clinic in which diseases of many sorts are treated.
This is the complete set of elements about which statements can be made.
Post-consumption phase of consumer behaviour
Consumer’s actions taking place after the actual purchase/consumption of a product/service, which reflect the
consumer’s dissatisfaction or satisfaction.
The medical care a patient receives upon first contact with the health care system, before referral elsewhere
within the system.
Pre-consumption phase of consumer behaviour
Consumer’s actions taking place before the actual purchase/consumption of a product/service. Pre-consumption
phase includes problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives and purchase decision.
A procedure or program designed to prevent a disease from occurring.
PHC (Primary Health Centre)
A basic structural and functional unit of the public health services in developing countries. PHCs were established
to provide accessible, affordable and available primary health care to people.
A medical specialty officially devoted to the treatment and study of mental disorders.
Disease related to lungs.
The specialty that deals with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory tract.
Interpretive techniques that seek to describe, decode, translate, and otherwise come to terms with the meaning,
not the frequency, of certain phenomena.
The precise count of some behaviour, knowledge, opinion or attitude.
The branch or specialty of medicine that deals with the study and application of imaging technology like x-ray
and radiation to diagnosing and treating disease.
The use of surgery to restore the form and function of the body.
A therapy aimed at improving neurocognitive function that has been lost or diminished by disease or traumatic
This is the degree to which a measurement is independent of coincidence and consistent. It is a necessary but
not sufficient condition for validity.
The techniques and procedures used to obtain and analyse research data, including for example questionnaires,
observation, interviews, and statistical and non-statistical techniques.
A sub-specialty in internal medicine and paediatrics, devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases,
i.e. medical problems affecting the joints and connective tissue.
A surgical procedure that is usually performed in order to improve the function (plastic surgery) or the appearance
(cosmetic surgery) of a human nose.
The use of robots in performing surgery.
SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation)
An economic and political organisation of eight countries in Southern Asia: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal,
Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan.
A sub-group or part of a larger population that are carefully selected to represent the population.
A hospital for recuperation or for the treatment of chronic diseases.
A group of 25 European countries which have abolished all border controls between each other. Schengen
countries include: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland.
A treatment by specialists to whom a patient has been referred by primary care providers.
A form of medical treatment of diseases using substances of all possible origins in a way that balances the possible
harmful effect of each substance. Preparations are made mainly out of the parts of the plants and trees
such as leaves, bark, stem, root etc, but include also mineral and some animal substances. This form of medicine
is well known in South India
An American cuisine, the traditional cuisine of African Americans in the United States.
A medical specialty dealing with preventing, diagnosing and treating injuries related to participating in sports
A resort providing therapeutic baths.
Stem cell therapy
A technology in which a person’s own neuronal stem cells are triggered to revert to their primitive embryonic
form and then re-differentiate into mature cells of various organs.
A strategic planning method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved
in a project or in a business venture.
The use of medical information exchanged via electronic communications to improve patients’ health status.
This includes consultations, rendering diagnosis, patient monitoring and long distance surgery.
The ability for a doctor to perform surgery on a patient even though they are not physically in the same location.
Telesurgery combines elements of robotics, cutting edge communication technology and elements of
management information systems.
A treatment given in a health care centre that includes highly trained specialists and often advanced technology.
The field of medicine involved in the surgical treatment of diseases affecting organs inside the thorax (the
A surgery of thyroid gland. A gland that makes and stores hormones that help regulate the heart rate, blood
pressure, body temperature, and the rate at which food is converted into energy.
The study of wounds and injuries caused by accidents or violence to a person, and the surgical therapy and repair
of the damage.
Any healing practice that does not fall within the realm of conventional medicine or that has not been shown
consistently to be effective. Alternative medicine is often based on the belief that a particular health regimen
has efficacious effects even while there exists various bodies of evidence to contradict such a belief under the
rigorous standards of evidence-based medicine. Commonly cited examples include naturopathy, herbalism, traditional
Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, yoga, and homeopathy.
A nation which, comparative to others, lacks industrialization, infrastructure, developed agriculture, and developed
natural resources, and suffers from a low per capita income as a result.
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation)
A specialised agency of the United Nations established with the purpose to contribute to peace and security
by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture.
The surgical specialty that focuses on the urinary tracts of males and females, and on the reproductive system
1. The extent to which data collection method or methods accurately measure what they are intended to measure.
2. The extent to which research findings are really about what they profess to be about.
The treatment of surgery on diagnosed patients with diseases of the arterial, venous, and lymphatic systems.
In dentistry a thin layer of restorative material placed over a tooth surface, either to improve the aesthetics of
a tooth, or to protect a damaged tooth surface.
In microeconomics and management, the term used to describe companies which are united through a hierarchy
with a common owner. Usually each member of the hierarchy produces a different product or (marketspecific)
service, and the products are combined to satisfy a common need.
WHO (World Health Organisation)
A specialised agency of the United Nations that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health.
Traditional physical and mental disciplines originating in India. The word is associated with meditative practices
in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.
A traditional healing system prevalent in the Middle East, India, Pakistan, and neighbouring countries, according
to which the body comprises four basic elements—earth, air, water, and fire— and four humours—blood,
phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. An equilibrium in the humours indicates good health while a disturbance
in this equilibrium results in disease.